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What causes wrinkles?


Wrinkles are a natural by-product of aging. As you age, skin cells divide more and more slowly. The inner layer of the skin, the dermis, begins to thin. The network of elastin and collagen fibers supporting the outer layer becomes loose. This process causes the surface of the skin to sag. As you get older, your skin becomes more vulnerable. In addition, glands that secrete oil are less efficient, making the skin less able to retain moisture and appear more wrinkled. All of these factors can cause wrinkles.

Facial muscle contraction
The lines between the eyebrows ("11" or frown lines) and the lines of the corners of the eyes (crow's feet) are thought to be formed by potential muscle contractions. Smiles, frowns, winks, and other habitual facial expressions make these wrinkles more visible with age. Over time, these expressions, combined with gravity and reduced bone density and fat, can cause sagging of the jaw and eyelids.

Excessive exposure to UV radiation (excessive sunlight) can lead to premature skin aging, also known as photoaging. Ultraviolet rays cause photoaging damage to collagen fibers (the main structural proteins in the skin) and elastin fibers (proteins that allow the skin to stretch). Both fibers are an important part of skin connective tissue. Without them, the skin loses its strength and elasticity, causing wrinkles. When ultraviolet light damages skin tissue, certain enzymes are produced. These enzymes produce and engineer collagen. However, during this process, some healthy collagen fibers are damaged, resulting in the disordered formation of a fiber called the sun scar. When this reconstruction process occurs repeatedly, wrinkles are formed.

Healthy skin will always regenerate. When the old collagen is broken down and removed, new collagen is produced and installed. The researchers found that smoking causes a decrease in the production of new collagen. The lack of new collagen causes wrinkles. This may also be due to the insufficient blood supply to the skin due to smoking.

Heredity (some families wrinkle more)

The loss of subcutaneous fat on a person's body (people with more subcutaneous fat have fewer wrinkles)